Single Time Heated Different Vegetable Oils Use-Impact on the Magnitude of Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN) Associated Adverse Effects

Gul Ambreen1, 2 , *, Afshan Siddiq1, Kashif Hussain2, Sadia G. Baig1
1 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan
2 Aga Khan University Hospitals, Karachi, Pakistan

© 2020 Ambreen et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan; Tel: +92 3002402035; E-mail:



In clinical practice, Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN) is standard of care for patients of gastrointestinal tract disorders. TPN therapy is associated with a number of adverse effects like hepatobiliary dysfunction, dyslipidemia, and oxidative stress. Different vegetable oils are used by every individual daily in routine life.


This study assessed the magnitude of TPN-associated adverse effects in animals fed on different vegetable oils.


Healthy adult rabbits of local strain were divided into 5 groups (n= 8). The study was divided into 2 phases. Phase I: oil feeding; the first set of rabbits served as control and fed on a normal rabbit diet. Four sets of rabbits were treated for 16 weeks with 1 ml/kg/day of single time heated olive (STH-OO), canola (STH-CO), sunflower oils (STH-SO) or a mixture of these oils (STH-MVO). In phase II: TPN was given to each group, including the control group, for 2 weeks. Before and after TPN therapy, body and liver weights were measured. Plasma lipid profile [triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, very-low-density lipoproteins], liver function marker [total-protein, albumin, total and direct bilirubin, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and alkaline phosphatase], oxidative stress and tissue damage parameters [malondialdehyde, C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine phosphokinase] of all the groups weremeasured at the end of TPN therapy.


Significantly (p <0.05) elevated hepatic enzymes, oxidative stress and tissue damage markers along with dyslipidemia were observed in STH-MVO and STH-SO fed groups, in comparison to control. In STH-OO and STH-CO groups, all these parameters were insignificantly different than control after 2 weeks of TPN therapy. The higher plasma levels of, High-Density Lipoproteins (HDL), total protein and albumin and reduced Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, were observed in STH-OO and STH-CO groups than the control.


This study recommends that high monounsaturated fatty acids containing oils like olive and canola oils, are found to have strong resistance against the hepatic injury and lipid peroxidation. The study also recommends taking the history of oil use by an individual before the initiation of therapeutic agents with known side effects of hepatic toxicity and dyslipidemia.

Keywords: Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN), Hepatobiliary disorders, Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA), Monounsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFA), High-Density Lipoproteins (HDL), Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels.